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Grade Five
What processes change landforms?

Forces of nature are constantly changing the surface of the Earth. Click on these web pages to explore caves and climb mountains. Find out more about the landforms where you live.

Clicking on the Go button will open a new browser window and take you to a website outside of sciLINKS. You can resize the window as you wish. Just remember to close that window when you're done—your computer will thank you for it!

Title: Water Science for Schools
Description: Find information on almost any water topic at this USGS site. Included in the site are: water basics, water use, Earth's water, water quality issues, map gallery, data library, picture gallery, glossary, and activity center and many water links.
URL: https://water.usgs.gov/edu/index.html

Title: How People Have Been Shaping the Earth
Description: In addition to volcanoes, earthquakes, and erosion, should we include humans as a force that changes the Earth's surface?
URL: https://www.sciencenewsforstudents.org/article/how-peop ...

Title: How Rocks Change
Description: The animations here show how rocks change from one form into another. Follow the arrows, and at the end take the challenge to check your understanding.
URL: http://www.learner.org/interactives/rockcycle/change.ht ...

Title: Global Climate Change: Research Explorer - Cryosphere
Description: This website provides data about how glaciers respond to short-term changes in weather and climate. A glossary is provided and related websites are listed.
URL: http://www.exploratorium.edu/climate/cryosphere/data1.h ...

Title: SDSU – Department of Geological Sciences
Description: Learn the history of the Plinian eruption, and its general characteristics.
URL: http://www.geology.sdsu.edu/how_volcanoes_work/Plinian. ...

Title: Erosion and Weathering
Description: This lesson from PBS Learning Media includes a slide presentation describing factors that change landforms, a background essay, and discussion questions.
URL: https://witf.pbslearningmedia.org/resource/ess05.sci.es ...

Title: Erosion
Description: This description of erosion processes includes a gallery of photographs.
URL: https://www.nationalgeographic.org/encyclopedia/erosion ...

Title: Landslide Hazards Program
Description: Learn everything about landslides! Visit the Information Center to cover the basics first and then look at pictures and read about recent landslides. Also data and current scientific research available.
URL: https://landslides.usgs.gov/

Title: The Cryosphere: Where the World is Frozen
Description: Established by NOAA as a national information and referral center in support of polar and cryospheric research, NSIDC archives and distributes digital and analog snow and ice data. There is information about snow cover, avalanches, and glaciers.
URL: http://nsidc.org/cryosphere/

Title: Types of Volcanoes and Eruptions
Description: Use this fact sheet with photographs to compare and contrast types of volcanoes and types of eruptions.
URL: https://www.gns.cri.nz/Home/Learning/Science-Topics/Vol ...

Title: The Forces That Change the Face of Earth
Description: The Earth's surface is constantly changing. Read about what causes these changes, including erosion, volcanoes, earthquakes, and glaciers.
URL: http://beyondpenguins.ehe.osu.edu/issue/earths-changing ...

Title: Surface and Interior
Description: Learn about the relationship between tectonic plates and the features of the Earth's surface. There are descriptions of volcanoes, too.
URL: http://www.bbc.co.uk/science/earth/surface_and_interior

Title: Our Earth Is Always Changing
Description: Find out more about the forces that change the surface of our planet, including the slower ones we don't notice.
URL: https://www.amnh.org/ology/features/bigideas_earth/

Title: Weathering, Erosion, and Deposition
Description: See the connections between these processes in the formation of landforms and other landscape features.
URL: http://www.opengeography.org/ch-7-weathering-erosion-an ...

Title: As Sea Level Rises, Beaches Shrink
Description: This is a great site for both teachers and students to gather information on how sea level changes affect beach sizes using up-to-date technology and data.
URL: https://www.nasa.gov/vision/earth/lookingatearth/Sea_le ...

Title: A Science Odyssey: You Try It: Plate Tectonics
Description: See how the Earth moves in this simulated activity. This site has great animations and explanations on plate tectonic theory, sea floor spread, and the continental slide and crush. It also contains a related section on people and discoveries.
URL: http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/tryit/tectonics/index.html

Title: Don't Call it Dirt - A Passion for Soil
Description: This eight-minute video gives an overview of the history behind soil conservation in the United States. It also discusses ways to prevent soil erosion.
URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LSRmFSKBypI

Title: Soil and Water Conservation
Description: This is a five-minute video on soil and water conservation techniques in Africa.
URL: http://www.thewaterchannel.tv/videos/categories/viewvid ...

Title: 79 AD Vesuvius Eruption
Description: Why is a type of volcanic eruption called "Plinian"? Find out here.
URL: http://www.kids-fun-science.com/vesuvius-eruption.html

Title: Climate Influences the Rock Cycle
Description: Read about the processes of weathering, erosion, deposition, and lithification and their roles in the rock cycle.
URL: https://www.windows2universe.org/?page=/earth/climate/g ...

Title: HowStuffWorks “Types of Eruptions”
Description: There are several typical eruption varieties. The page gives some characteristics of most common eruptions types: Plinian eruptions, Hawaiian eruptions and Strombolian eruptions.
URL: https://science.howstuffworks.com/nature/natural-disast ...

Title: Travel Photo of the Day
Description: Every day, a new photo is posted and many feature nature, geological formations, and weather events. Students can guess the location based on clues in the photo, or the photo can be used as a writing prompt
URL: http://www.cnn.com/2011/09/21/travel/travel-photo-of-th ...

Title: Plinian eruption
Description: Read the description and the history of Plinian eruptions.
URL: http://en.academic.ru/dic.nsf/enwiki/581425

Title: People Cause More Soil Erosion Than All Natural Processes
Description: How much erosion is the result of human activities, compared to natural processes? This article describes some research on this topic.
URL: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2004/11/041103234 ...

Title: Beach Erosion
Description: Here are some photographs that show the effects of beach erosion. The article also has predictions of what could happen with climate change.
URL: https://whyfiles.org/091beach/index.html

Title: Erosion and Weathering
Description: These two processes are described in this article, along with a photo gallery showing the results of weathering and erosion.
URL: https://www.nationalgeographic.com/science/earth/the-dy ...

Title: Types of Volcanic Eruptions
Description: Five types of volcanic eruptions are described here. Are are they different?
URL: http://www.basicplanet.com/types-volcanic-eruptions/

Title: Types of Landforms
Description: There are many types of landforms on the earth's surface, and this page looks at many of them. Each is characterized by features such as its slope, elevation, soil and rock type, and how it was formed. You can also listen to a narration of the text.
URL: https://www.buzzle.com/articles/types-of-landforms.html

Title: Virtually climb the Vancori-summit!
Description: What is it like to climb a volcano? This is the start page for two virtual climbs of Italy's Mt. Stromboli. You can go right up, or stop to sightsee and see the flowers along the way.
URL: http://www.swisseduc.ch/stromboli/volcano/virtual/index ...

Title: Soil Erosion
Description: What are the negative effects of soil erosion? This site describes the process and has lots of photographs showing the results of erosion. (Note: the site references the state of Maine, but the information could apply elsewhere,)
URL: http://www.maine.gov/dep/land/watershed/index.html

Title: Changes to the Earth's Surface
Description: Find out how "tectonic plates" affect the surface of the earth. What other factors cause changes?
URL: http://golsonscience.com/geology/changes_surface.htm

Title: Erosion Facts for Kids
Description: What is erosion? What causes it? How does it affect us?
URL: http://www.scienceforkidsclub.com/erosion.html

Title: Surface of the Earth
Description: Canyons, caves, coastlines--these and other landforms are described here with photographs from National Geographic.
URL: https://www.nationalgeographic.com/environment/earth-ha ...

Title: Plinian Eruption Style
Description: Read a brief description of this type of explosive eruption. Follow the link for examples of Plinian eruptions and for more on volcanoes.
URL: https://www.e-education.psu.edu/geosc30/node/707

Title: Volcanoes
Description: Did you know there are different types of volcanoes? Click here for photos and a brief description of each type. This page also provides links to other interesting volcano information.
URL: https://www.windows2universe.org/?page=/earth/interior/ ...

Title: How Landslides Work
Description: Landslides are an extreme form of erosion. Read more about what causes them.
URL: https://science.howstuffworks.com/environmental/earth/g ...

Title: Landslide Overview Map of the Conterminous United States
Description: This paper explains the landslide overview map that delineates areas where large numbers of landslides exist and areas which are susceptible to landsliding.
URL: https://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/p1183/

Title: Landforms
Description: This site can help you learn and review various facts about landforoms Click on a name to learn about that landform. After each section, there is a short review quiz to check yourself.
URL: http://www.mcwdn.org/MAPS&GLOBES/LandForms.html

Title: Plinian Eruption / Universe Today
Description: Here is a brief description of Plinian eruption, also see an image of a plinian-type explosive eruption from the Crater Peak vent.
URL: http://volcano-pictures.info/glossary/plinian_eruption. ...

Title: Types of Volcanic Eruptions
Description: Discover the most common types of volcanic eruptions.
URL: http://geology.com/volcanoes/types-of-volcanic-eruption ...

Title: Erosion By Water Processes
Description: Learn how water can change the landscape. This slideshow explains drainage basins, watersheds, valleys, and interfluves.
URL: http://www.kidsgeo.com/geology-for-kids/0074-erosion-ri ...

Title: Volcanoes
Description: Read about types of volcanoes and different kinds of eruptions. Where on earth are they found?
URL: http://www.scholastic.com/browse/article.jsp?id=3754105

Title: Weathering
Description: Maybe you know that weathering is the breakdown of rocks into smaller and smaller pieces, but did you know there are different types of weathering? Click here to learn about mechanical, chemical and biological weathering.
URL: http://www.geography4kids.com/files/land_weathering.htm ...

Title: Soil
Description: Learn how soil works, how it can be coaxed into sustainable production and how it can so easily be lost.
URL: http://www.seafriends.org.nz/enviro/soil/index.htm

Title: Operational Significant Event Imagery
Description: What do major environmental events such as volcanic eruptions, hurricanes, dust storms, or snow storms, look like from space? Here is an extensive collections of satellite images from NOAA organized by event, location, and year.
URL: http://www.ospo.noaa.gov/Organization/History/osei/inde ...

Title: Earth's Active Volcanoes
Description: Click here for a page full of links to the world’s most active volcanoes. Just choose a region and select the specific area your interested in.
URL: http://www.geo.mtu.edu/volcanoes/world.html

Title: Mauna Loa
Description: Mount Everest may hold a world record, but it is not the biggest mountain. Mauna Loa, located on the island of Hawaii, is the biggest single mountain. Click here to learn what makes this mountain so big.
URL: http://www.extremescience.com/mauna-loa.htm

Title: Introduction to Erosion
Description: Here is a description (with pictures) of types of weathering and erosion processes.
URL: http://www.kidsgeo.com/geology-for-kids/0059-introducti ...

Title: 20th Century Volcanic Eruptions and Their Impact
Description: Information on 20th Century volcanoes is provided in a time line fashion at this US geological site. Click on the volcano name if you need more information.
URL: https://volcanoes.usgs.gov/index.html

Title: Volcano Watch
Description: Where in the world are the most active volcanoes? This site will show you. Click here for satellite images and java animation of the most recent volcanoes.
URL: http://www.ssec.wisc.edu/data/volcano.html

Title: Color Landform Atlas of the United States
Description: Can you identify the landforms in your area or your state? Click on this map and learn more about your region of the United States.
URL: http://fermi.jhuapl.edu/states/states.html

Title: Animated Movie of a Volcano Collapsing
Description: Click here to watch a QuickTime movie of a volcano collapsing.
URL: http://ete.cet.edu/modules/modules.html

Title: Animated Movie of the Mt. St. Helens Eruption
Description: Watch Mount St. Helens blow! This page is a QuickTime movie of the eruption of Mount St. Helens.
URL: http://ete.cet.edu/modules/modules.html

Title: Goal of the Paleomap Project
Description: A gold mine of resouce information and activities that can be readily used or adapted to any classroom. This site is very comprehensive when it comes to topics of earth history or past climates.
URL: http://www.scotese.com/Default.htm

Title: Weathering processes on Mars
Description: This site focuses on weathering and erosion on Mars. It has links to other pages so a reader can compare those processes with those on the earth. The site is well referenced and is just one part of a much larger site with lots of further recourses.
URL: https://www.windows2universe.org/?page=/mars/exploring/ ...

Title: Carve That Mountain
Description: In the first part of the lesson, students build a model of a landscape depicting several landforms. They then apply engineering concepts to build a road through the landscape.
URL: https://www.teachengineering.org/activities/view/cub_ea ...

Title: Erosion in Rivers
Description: Students experiment with ways to minimize the effects of water erosion by flooding. They create a model riverbank with buildings to text their engineering strategies.
URL: https://www.teachengineering.org/activities/view/nyu_er ...

Title: The Earth is a Changin'
Description: In this lesson, students compare and contrast several types of erosion (including chemical, water, wind, glacier and temperature) and how these change the surface of the Earth.
URL: https://www.teachengineering.org/lessons/view/cub_earth ...

Title: Enduring Resources for Earth Sciences Education
Description: Here is a searchable database of resources and information related to a variety of topics. You can search by research question or by topic.
URL: https://earthref.org/ERESE/

Title: Shape It Up
Description: This lesson introduces students to the concept that landforms change over time due to forces such as wind, water, volcanism, and glaciation. The lesson includes an online simulation, handouts and teaching suggestions for a hands-on activity.
URL: http://sciencenetlinks.com/lessons/shape-it-up/

Title: Experiments with Weathering, Erosion, and Deposition
Description: Here are some ideas for using stream tables to study the process of erosion and deposition. In the final activity, students design and conduct experiments to explore how surface area relates to the rate of weathering of minerals and rocks.
URL: http://csip.cornell.edu/Curriculum_Resources/CEIRP/stre ...

Title: The Grand Canyon
Description: In this video, a teacher explains how students learn the concept of erosion in a 5E lesson, using the Grand Canyon as a context.
URL: http://cove.kcpt.org/video/1464379803/

Title: Breaking is Down - Weathering and Erosion
Description: This lesson on weathering and erosion starts with an online game. These processes are continued to be explored with online videos and a hands-on laboratory experiment.
URL: https://westernreserve.pbslearningmedia.org/resource/na ...

Title: Mount St. Helens: Before and After
Description: This lesson has a collection of still images and video that depicts before-and-after scenes of Mount St. Helens and its surroundings and shows the extent of environmental recovery 20 years later.
URL: https://www.pbslearningmedia.org/resource/ess05.sci.ess ...

Title: About to Explode
Description: Students compare the Mount St. Helens’ eruptions of 1980 and 2004-2005 in this lesson that uses articles from the New York Times. The lesson includes discussion questions and extention activities.
URL: https://myaccount.nytimes.com/auth/login?URI=http://lea ...

Title: Gone With the Weathering
Description: This comprehensive set of resources (including background information, graphics, and activities) defines and compares the processes of weathering, erosion, and deposition.
URL: http://westernreservepublicmedia.org/weathering/images/ ...

Title: Stream Table Models of Erosion and Deposition
Description: In this 5E lesson, students use a stream table model to explore how different stream characteristics and conditions interact.
URL: http://www.geo.arizona.edu/sites/www.geo.arizona.edu/fi ...

Title: Weathering and Erosion
Description: Students explore the processes and effects of weathering and erosion in this activity. Using the results, they design and conduct an experiment comparing the rate of erosion in different biomes.
URL: https://undsci.berkeley.edu/lessons/weathering_erosion. ...

Title: How Mountains Are Formed
Description: In this lesson, students learn the connection between tectonic plates and mountain formation and the technologies used by scientists and engineers in studying mountains.
URL: https://www.teachengineering.org/lessons/view/cub_rock_ ...

Title: The Dynamic Earth
Description: Use the Internet to help your students understand the nature of earthquakes and volcanoes. Includes learning how earthquake intensity is measured, where earthquakes occur, and what global patterns exist.
URL: http://www.thirteen.org/edonline/lessons/dynamic_earth/

Title: Weathering and Erosion Basics
Description: In this video, a teacher explains and demonstrates the difference between weathering and erosion and illustrates type of weathering. (YouTube 7:38)
URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CNUzTmPKxv8

Title: VHP Photo Glossary: Plinian eruption
Description: Read a brief description of plinian eruption, also view a 1992 photo of eruption cloud and tephra.
URL: https://volcanoes.usgs.gov/vsc/glossary/

Title: Weathering and Erosion
Description: Use this slide show and discussion questions to show the results of erosion and weathering, resulting in various rock formations.
URL: https://www.pbslearningmedia.org/resource/ess05.sci.ess ...

Title: Volcanic Cones and Eruptions
Description: This lesson compares six types of volcanic eruptions, using diagrams and photographs.
URL: http://volcano.oregonstate.edu/volcanic-cones-and-erupt ...

Title: Soil and erosion unit: Section 1
Description: This is a two-week soil activity that examines the relationship between climate and soil formation.
URL: http://www.learnnc.org/lp/pages/3903

Title: Identifying erosion
Description: Students will be able to identify erosion and explain the causes of erosion after doing hands-on investigation and internet resources to do research.
URL: http://atozteacherstuff.com/pages/298.shtml

Title: Investigate and Report on Erosion
Description: Take a walk around your home, school, or neighborhood. What evidence of erosion do you see? This activity will guide you through the writing process as you describe your observations.
URL: http://teacher.scholastic.com/dirtrep/erosion/index.htm

Title: Weathering and Erosion
Description: Use this activity to show the effects of weathering and erosion on rocks. Background information and extensions to the activity are provided.
URL: http://www.uen.org/Lessonplan/preview.cgi?LPid=2692

Title: Erosion
Description: Erosion is happening all around us. Even though you may not recognize it, the forces of erosion are constantly shaping our planet. Learn more about erosion, investigate, and describe how erosion is affecting the earth in your neighborhood.
URL: http://teacher.scholastic.com/dirtrep/erosion/invest.ht ...

Title: Explosive Vulcanian Eruption
Description: Watch an actual volcanic eruption. (YouTube 1:18)
URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mIX43uy4Zvg

Title: What's the difference between weathering and erosion?
Description: This short discussion explains the differences between two processes that often work in concert to decompose rocks.
URL: https://geomaps.wr.usgs.gov/parks/misc/gweaero.html

Title: Soil Erosion: It Can Run Away With Your Farm!
Description: Read about why farmers need to be concerned about erosion and the practices that can be used to minimize it.
URL: http://www2.kenyon.edu/projects/farmschool/types/soil.h ...

Title: Weathering and Erosion
Description: This video examines the relationship between the geosphere and the hydrosphere. (YouTube 4:05)
URL: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R-Iak3Wvh9c

Title: Rocks for Kids
Description: This site is for kids of all ages who love rocks. Here you will find out stuff about rocks & minerals and where to go to find out more.
URL: http://www.rocksforkids.com/

Title: Do Rocks Last Forever?
Description: These four experiments will have students exploring the effects of mechanical and chemical weathering.
URL: http://www.conservation.ca.gov/cgs/information/kids_geo ...

Title: Do Rocks Last Forever?
Description: These two experiments will help your students understand and explain the question, “Do Rocks Last Forever?”
URL: http://scienceviews.com/geology/activity4.html

Title: How Does the Rain Shape the Earth?
Description: How does rain shape the earth? To see erosion in action, try this simple science lab. Can you predict what will happen to the dirt after you pour the water over it?
URL: http://teacher.scholastic.com/dirt/erosion/index.htm

Title: Wind Erosion
Description: Study how the wind moves sand on a beach with this wind erosion activity. What effect does the moving sand have on buildings? Can your students think of ways to minimize this effect?
URL: http://www.spacegrant.hawaii.edu/class_acts/Wind.html

Title: Erosion Jeopardy
Description: Make review fun! Play this game with the class, even includes great sound effects. Topics include weathering, erosion, deposition, the water cycle, rivers, and glaciers.
URL: http://www.regentsearthscience.com/jeopardy/erosion/jeo ...

Title: Gelatin Volcanoes
Description: Get "jiggy” with some red gelatin and see how and why magma moves inside volcanoes. You will need gelatin, a pegboard and lots of paper towels, but the mess is worth the effort! Great background information is available at the teacher’s page.
URL: http://www.spacegrant.hawaii.edu/class_acts/GelVol.html

Title: Volcanoes
Description: What happens when a volcano forms underwater? Ms. Frizzle’s class knows and when your kids do this hands-on activity, they will know too!
URL: https://www.scholastic.com/teachers/lesson-plans/teachi ...

Title: 5-minute refresher: weathering and erosion.
Description: Key ideas, objectives and prior knowledge are the focus of this 5-minute refresher on weathering and erosion.
URL: http://siemensscienceday.discoveryeducation.com/support ...

Title: Weathering and Erosion.
Description: This information sheet identifies characteristics of weathering and erosion, and explains the differences. It also includes and activity.
URL: http://www.montessoritraining.net/elementary_program2/c ...

Title: Stream Table
Description: Use this activity to show your students how a stream erodes, then transports and deposits materials.
URL: http://www.spacegrant.hawaii.edu/class_acts/Streams.htm ...